The Infamous False Friends

(Excerpts taken from Cognate Linguistics)

...the several statistics provided by this research are reliable evidence to oust some deeply-rooted misconceptions regarding both the number and impact of false cognates; we will demonstrate their immaterial impact in the process of cognate language acquisition.

The list below is certainly not absolute but it is sufficient, indeed. This list disagrees with other existing lists, mostly due to the criteria explained in the items 1.5, 1.6 and 1.7. Some of these lists of false cognates easily found on the Internet feature many more words with a very arguable false cognate status since possible misinterpretation is not a fixed attribute of theirs, not counting on their irrelevant frequency rank.

Interestingly, the larger the number of frequently used words or academic ones (AWL), the more real cognate, and the less false cognates we will find. Additionally, it is crucial to keep in mind that the effect of that average 5% of false cognate occurrence is easily, dramatically and permanently going to be reduced once we are informed about them. In other words, we will hardly ever make the same mistake twice concerning the use of a wrong cognate word.

Table 1.8 Percentages of false cognates in frequency lists

     GSLOxfordBrownKelk’sAWL
     2284 words  3457 words  1st 5000 words  20833 words  570 words
     Cognates32%42%44%40%71%
     False Cognates7%6%4%2%7%
     Remainder61%52%52%58%22%
     1% error margin*  22,834,550208,35,7

      *Note: this is the number of words that you would need to produce an increase of 1% to these figures.


     False Cognates
     
     English Word   Spanish Word
     (False Cognate to Spanish speakers)   (False Cognate to English speakers)
        
        
     Able adj. capable   Hable v. to speak (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Ace n. top player, champion   Hace v. to do (indicative form, 3rd person sing.)
     Actual adj. real   Actual adj. current, present
     Actually adv. really   Actualmente adv. currently, presently
     Actuate v. to start, to activate   Actuar v. to act
     Adept n. skilled, proficient   Adepto n. fan, affiliated
     Adherent n. supporter   Adherente n. adhesive
     Adjudicate v. to arbitrate   Adjudicar v. to concede
     Advert n. advertisement   Advertir v. to warn
     Advertise v. to publicize   Advertir v. to warn
     Advertisement n. commercial publication    Advertencia n. warning
     Advice n. recommendation   Avise v. to warn, let sb. know (imperative form, 2nd person sing)
     Advise v. to recommend   Aviso n. warning
     Affront v. to insult   Afrontar v. to face Afrenta n. insult
     Ago adv. before   Hago v. to do (indicative form, 1st person sing.)
     Alcove n. niche   Alcoba n. bedroom
     All pron. every   Al prep. ‘to the’, towards
     Allocate v. to assign   Alócate v. to get crazy (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Allocated adj. owed, assigned   Alocado adj. crazy, over excited
     Also adv. as well   Alzo v. to lift (indicative form, 1st person sing.)
     Amaze v. to astonish   Amase v. to knead (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Amazed adj. astonished   Amasado adj. kneaded
     Amenities n. things that make a place comfortable to live or work in.   Amenidad n. the fact that something is enjoyable Ameno adj. enjoyable, fun.
     Amorous adj. usu. involving sexual love   Amoroso adj. loving
     Ancient adj. antique   Anciano adj. n. old; senior citizen
     Antique adj. very old   Antiguo adj. ancient; old-fashioned
     Aperture n. hole, orifice, crack   Apertura n. inauguration/opening
     Apology n. excuse   Apología n. eulogy
     Appellation n. designation   Apelación n. claim; requirement, petition
     Appoint v. to nominate; to assign a duty    Apuntar v. to aim; to take notes; Apunte n. note
     Apt adj. appropriate   Apto adj. able
     Armada n. fleet   Armada n. the Navy
     Ardent adj. passionate, devoted   Ardiente adj. passionate; burning
     Ardour n. passion; devotion   Ardor n. passion; burning
     Arena n. coliseum   Arena n. sand
     Argument n. quarrel   Argumento n. explanation; plot
     Arm n. limb; v. to supply weapons   Arma n. weapon; v. to supply weapons
     Armour n. bullet-proof vest   Amor n. love
     Arrow n. pointer   Arroz n. rice
     Artifice n. deceit   Artífice n. creator Artificio n. deceit
     Ascendancy n. influence   Ascendencia n. ancestry
     Aspersion n. accusation   Aspersión n. spraying
     Assess v. to evaluate; to estimate the value of property for taxation   Asesorar v. to provide professional advice
     Assessor n. somebody who assesses   Asesor n. consultant
     Assiduous adj. hardworking and careful   Asiduo adj. regular, frequent
     Assumption n. supposition   Asunción n. exaltation
     Asylum n. shelter   Asilo n. old people’s home, nursery
     Ate v. past tense of to eat   Ate v. to tie (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Attain v. to accomplish, to achieve   Atar v. to tie
     Attempt v. to try   Atentar v. to attack
     Attend v. to be present   Atender v. to pay attention
     Auction n. public sale   Acción n. action
     Aunt n. one’s uncle’s wife   Aún adv. still, yet
     Avail v. to use; to help   Avalar v. to guarantee
     Avocado n. a fruit with a very large seed and black or green skin   Abogado n. lawyer
     Bachelor n. single   Bachiller n. high school graduate
     Bale n. a big amount of something such as paper or cotton tied tightly together   Bala n. bullet
     Ball n. sphere   Bala n. bullet
     Balloon n. inflatable   Balón n. ball
     Barb n. part of an arrowhead that makes it hard to remove   Barba n. beard
     Bark n. the sound made by a dog   Barco n. ship
     Batter v. to beat up   Batir v. to stir; to shake, to blend
     Bigot n. extremist   Bigote n. moustache
     Billet n. quarters   Billete n. banknote
     Billion n. 1,000,000,000   Billón n. 1,000,000,000,000
     Bizarre adj. strange   Bizarro adj. brave
     Bland adj. weak; ordinary   Blando adj. soft
     Blank adj. containing no writing or pictures   Blanco adj. white
     Blind adj. not able to see; v. to affect somebody’s vision   Blindar v. to armour
     Body n. the whole set of human physical components   Boda n. wedding
     Bomber n. somebody who plants bombs; a military aircraft that drops bombs during flight     Bombero n. fire fighter
     Bonnet n. a hat tied under the chin    Bonete n. ecclesiastical hat
     Border n. frontier   Borde n. brim
     Borrow v. to have a loan of   Burro n. donkey
     Bottom n. base, floor   Botón n. button
     Brave adj. bold   Bravo adj. angry
     Brute adj. bestial; n. somebody who attacks   Bruto adj. bestial; stupid; raw or not processed
     Cabana n. changing room next to a swimming pool   Cabaña n. hut
     Cabaret n. nightclub   Cabaret n. night club; brothel
     Cabinet n. cupboard   Gabinete n. cabinet; government; beauty parlour
     Café n. cafeteria   Café n. coffee
     Calves n. cow’s offspring   Calvos n. adj. bald
     Came v. past tense of to come   Cama n. bed
     Camp n. encampment   Campo n. countryside, forest
     Candid adj. honest   Cándido adj. good, naive
     Cane n. staff; bamboo   Cana n. grey hair
     Cap n. lid   Capa n. cape
     Capable adj. able   Capable adj. that can be castrated
     Carbon n. non-metallic element, symbol C    Carbón n. coal
     Card n. certificate   Carta n. letter
     Care n. carefulness   Cara n. face
     Career n. profession   Carrera n. career; race
     Carpet n. rug   Carpeta n. folder
     Cart n. wheeled haul   Carta n. letter
     Carton n. cardboard box   Cartón n. cardboard; cardboard box
     Cartoon n. animation   Cartón n. cardboard; cardboard box
     Case n. container; situation   Casa n. house
     Cask n. barrel   Casco n. helmet
     Casual adj. informal   Casual adj. occasional, unexpected; informal
     Casually adv. informally   Casualmente adv. occasionally; informally
     Casualty n. victim   Casualidad n. coincidence
     Choke to suffocate   Choque n. crash
     Chose v. to select   Choza n. hut
     Chorus n. main paragraph of a song   Coro n. choir; main paragraph of a song.
     Cigar n. tobacco stick   Cigarrillo n. cigarette
     Collar n. necklace; neck   Collar n. necklace
     College n. higher education institution   Colegio n. high school
     Come v. to approach   Come v. to eat (indicative form, 3rd person sing.)
     Command v. order n. commandment   Comando n. troop
     Commodity n. goods, product, service   Comodidad n. comfort
     Compass n. an object to find your way in the sea; an object to draw circles   Compás n. an object to draw circles
     Complain v. to express discontent   Complacer v. to please
     Complexion n. related to skin   Complexión n. body structure (height, weight)
     Compliment n. praise   Cumplimiento n. fulfilment
     Comprehensive adj. complete   Comprehensivo adj. understanding
     Concourse n. confluence   Concurso n. concourse; contest.
     Condescending adj. patronizing    Condescendiente adj. tolerant; sympathetic
     Conductor n. performer; train controller    Conductor n. driver; guide
     Confectioner n. baker   Confeccionador n. manufacturer
     Confidence n. trust   Confidencia n. secret
     Confident adj. self-assured   Confidente n. confidant
     Conform v. to obey a rule; to behave according to people’s acceptance    Conformarse n. to agree to take less than wanted or be happy with it
     Constipated adj. unable to excrete from the bowels   Constipado adj. suffering from a cold
     Constipation n. the condition of being constipated   Constipación n. cold
     Content adj. satisfied   Contento adj. happy
     Contented adj. satisfied   Contento adj. happy
     Contest n. competition   Contestar v. to answer
     Convene v. to assemble   Convenir v. to agree with
     Correspond v. to exchange written messages   Corresponder v. to match
     Correspondent n. reporter   Correspondiente adj. corresponding
     Costume n. disguise   Costumbre n. custom, habit
     Council n. a body serving in an administrative capacity    Conciliar v. to reconcile
     Courage n. bravery   Coraje n. anger, rage
     Crude adj. rough   Crudo adj. raw
     Curse n. annoyance, spell   Curso n. course
     Cynic n. pessimist, sceptic   Cínico adj. shameless
     Cynicism n. pessimism; sarcasm   Cinismo n. sarcasm; shamelessness
     Damn, Damned intj. taboo word   Dame v. give me (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Date n. day   Dato n. information
     Deception n. trickery   Decepción n. disappointment
     Delight n. pleasure   Delito n. crime
     Demand v. to firmly make a request; n. firm request   Demandar v. to sue; to firmly make a request demanda n. lawsuit; a firm request
     Deprecate v. to criticize    Despreciar v. to disregard; to despise
     Despite adv. in spite of   Despiste v. absent-mindedness
     Dessert n. treat, sweet   Desierto n. desert
     Destitute adj. extremely poor   Destituir v. to remove from charge
     Destitution n. extreme poverty   Destitución n. removal from charge
     Devise v. to plan   Divisar v. to distinguish, to perceive
     Device n. mechanism   Divisa n. currency
     Dice n. cube   Dice v. to say (indicative form, 3rd person sing.)
     Dime n. 10 cents   Dime v. ‘tell me’
     Dinner n. evening meal   Dinero n. money
     Direction n. instruction   Dirección n. address
     Discuss v. to converse   Discusión v. argument
     Discussion n. conversation   Discusión v. argument
     Disgrace n. shame   Desgracia n. disaster, misfortune, displeasure; shame
     Disgrace v. to shame   Desgraciar to displease
     Disgust n. loathing v. to loath   Disgusto n. annoyance Disgustar v. to annoy
     Disgusted adj. shocked   Disgustado adj. annoyed, angry
     Disgusting adj. shocking   Disgustante adj. annoying
     Dismay n. shock   Desmayo n. someone’s collapse
     Distinct adj. divergent; clear, definite   Distinto adj. different
     Distract v. to divert   Distraer v. to miss focus or attention; to amuse
     Distraction n. entertainment   Distracción n. missing focus; entertainment, amusement
     Divert v. to distract   Divertir v. to amuse, to have fun
     Diversion n. distraction   Diversión n. amusement, fun
     Dormitory n. usu. a residence hall   Dormitorio n. bedroom
     Dose n. dosage   Doce n. twelve
     Economic adj. financial   Económico adj. cheap
     Economics n. finances   Económicos adj. cheap
     Educated adj. cultured   Educado adj. cultured; polite, well-mannered
     Effective adj. efficient   Efectivo adj. efficient; n. cash
     Elemental adj. basic    Elemental adj. basic; elementary; obvious
     Eleven n. 11 (10+1)   Eleven v. lift (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Embarrassed adj. ashamed   Embarazada adj. pregnant
     Engross v. to absorb; to occupy   Engrosar v. to get thicker, fatter
     Envoy n. representative   Enviar v. to send
     Envy n. jealousy   Enviar v. to send
     Equip v. to supply   Equipo n. team
     Equipment n. set of instruments used to accomplish an end    Equipo n. team; equipment
     Equivocation n. indirectness   Equivocación n. error, mistake
     Escapade n. adventure   Escapada n. escape
     Estate n. private property   Estado n. state
     Eventual adj. final, ultimate   Eventual adj. possible, accidental
     Eventually adv. finally, ultimately   Eventualmente adv. possibly
     Excite v. to thrill   Excitar v. to stimulate (usually sexually)
     Excited adj. thrilled   Excitado adj. stimulated (usually sexually)
     Exit n. way out   Éxito n. success
     Expectation n. hope   Expectación n. expectancy, interest, attention
     Expedient adj. suitable, advantageous   Expediente n. file, record
     Expense n. expenditure   Espeso n. thick
     Explain v. to clarify   Explanar v. to level off
     Fabric n. textile   Fabrica n. factory
     Facility n. service   Facilidad n. ease
     Factory n. manufacturing plant   Factoría n. enterprise Factor n. element
     Faculty n. professors   Facultad n. skill, ability; university department
     Fastidious adj. fussy, difficult   Fastidioso adj. annoying
     Fault n. blame   Falta n. lack
     Feast n. banquet   Fiesta n. party
     File n. folder   Fila n. row; line of people, things
     Fin n. propeller   Fin n. end
     Fine adj. well   Fino adj. thin; of high quality
     Floor n. storey   Flor n. flower
     Florid adj. extravagant   Florido adj. with flowers; rhetorical
     Font n. set of letters of the same type or style   Fuente n. fountain
     For prep. on behalf of   Por prep. for; multiplied by; due to
     Fracas n. quarrel   Fracaso n. failure
     Fume n. gas, smoke; v. to rage   Fume n. smoke (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Fund n. stock, supply   Funda n. bag
     Gang n. a group of criminals working together   Ganga n. bargain
     Genial adj. friendly   Genial adj. great
     Geniality n. friendliness   Genialidad n. great idea; imagination
     Gentle adj. kind, tender   Gentil adj. well-mannered; polite
     Gentile n. pagan   Gentil adj. well-mannered; polite
     Gently adv. kindly   Gentil adj. well-mannered; polite
     Grab v. to get hold of    Grabar v. to record, to engrave
     Gracious adj. polite   Gracioso adj. funny
     Grand adj. great, majestic   Grande adj. big, large
     Grape n. fruit   Grapa n. staple
     Grave n. the place where people are buried when they die   Grave adj. acute; serious severe
     Groceries n. provisions   Groserías n. rudeness, rude matters
     Guard v. to take care of, to protect   Guardar v. to keep
     Hay n. silage, grass   Hay n. there is/are
     Habitation n. the fact of people living in a place   Habitación n. bedroom; the fact of people living in a place
     Horn n. keratin outgrowth   Horno n. oven
     Humid adj. moist    Húmedo adj. moist; soaked, wet
     Idiom n. saying, proverb   Idioma n. language
     Inadequate adj. insufficient   Inadecuado adj. inappropriate
     Inconsequential adj. irrelevant   Inconsecuente adj. contradictory
     Indignant adj. annoyed   Indignante adj. outrageous, humiliating
     Industrious adj. hard-working   Industria adj. industry
     Ingenuity n. cleverness   Ingenuidad n. ingenuousness, naivety
     Inhabitable adj. liveable   Inhabitable adj. uninhabitable
     Inhabitant n. resident   Inhabitado adj. uninhabited
     Inhabited adj. populated   Inhabitado adj. uninhabited
     Injury v. to wound, n. wound   Injuria n. insult, offence
     To intimate to suggest   Intimar v. to socialize
     Intoxicated adj. affected by alcohol   Intoxicado adj. poisoned
     Intoxication n. the state of being intoxicated   Intoxicación n. contamination
     Introduce v. to present; to begin   Introducir v. to insert
     Introduction n. prologue; presentation   Introducción n. prologue; presentation; implementation
     Invidious adj. unpleasant   Envidioso adj. envious
     Involve v. to include   Envolver v. to wrap
     Journal n. magazine   Jornal n. salary
     Journalist n. reporter   Jornalero n. factory or farm worker
     Jubilation n. joy   Jubilación n. retirement
     Just adj. now   Justo adj. exact, precise; righteous, fair
     Labourer n. worker   Labrador n. farmer
     Large adj. big   Largo adj. long
     Largely adv. mostly   Largamente adv. for a long time
     Lecture n. conference   Lectura n. reading
     Lentil n. edible grain   Lente n. (optical) glass
     Letter n. correspondence   Letra n. letter (vowel or consonant)
     Liar n. untruthful   Liar v. to tie, to bind
     Librarian n.   Librería n. book store
     Library n. building with a collection of books, records   Librería n. book store
     Local n. native   Local adj. local, n. store
     Luxury n. comfort   Lujuria n. lust
     Major n. main   Mayor adj. older, Mejor adj. better
     Mallet n. hammer   Maleta n. suitcase
     Manner n. way of doing sth; behaviour, conduct   Manera n. way of doing sth.
     Mantelpiece n. bookshelf   Mantel (pieza) n. tablecloth
     Mark n. spot v. to indicate   Marco n. frame
     Mascara n. make-up   Mascara n. mask
     Mate n. friend   Mate n. type of tea
     Matter n. substance   Materia n. school subject; stuff; Material n. material
     Mayor n. elected head of a city or town   Mayor n. older
     Measure n. amount; v. to calculate   Mesura n. prudence
     Media n. press; medium   Media n. sock; average
     Molest v. to harass sexually   Molestar v. to bother
     Moral n. lesson, maxim   Moral n. morality
     Morbid adj. perverse   Mórbido adj. bland, soft
     Morose adj. depressed   Moroso adj. negligent
     Murder n. to kill   Muerde n. to bite (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     To note v. to write down   Notar v. to notice
     Notice v. to perceive; n. announcement   Noticia n. news
     Notorious adj. dishonourable   Notorio adj. obvious, evident (no neg. connotation)
     Novel adj. new, original   Novel adj. beginner
     Obscure adj. unclear   Oscuro adj. dark
     Occurrence n. event, incidence   Ocurrencia n. weird idea
     Opaque adj. unclear; thick   Opaco adj. nuclear, dark, dull
     Once adv. one time   Once adj. eleven
     Oration n. speech   Oración n. sentence; prayer
     Ostensible adj. apparent   Ostensible adj. evident
     Pail n. bucket   Pala n. shovel
     Pain n. ache   Pan n. bread
     Pale adj. colourless   Pala n. shovel, spade
     Pamphlet n. booklet    Panfleto n. lampoon
     Pan n. pot   Pan n. bread
     Panties n. short piece of underwear   Panties n. tights, panty-hose
     Papa n. dad   Papa n. Pope; potato; Papá n. dad
     Parcel n. package, piece of land   Parcela n. piece of land
     Parent n. father, mother   Pariente n. one’s relative (uncle, cousin, nephew, etc.)
     Particularly adv. specifically   Particularmente adv. specifically; privately
     Party n. festivity, event   Partí v. to split (past tense form, 1st person sing)
     Pattern n. model   Paterno n. related to fatherhood
     Periodical n. bulletin   Periódico n. newspaper
     Petition n. legal demand   Petición n. request
     Petrol n. gas   Petróleo n. petroleum
     Petulant adj. bad-tempered   Petulante adj. arrogant, vain
     Pie n. cake    Pie n. foot
     Pigeon n. domestic bird found mainly in big groups in cities   Pichón n. young bird
     Pinch v. to squeeze   Pinchar v. to prick; to puncture
     Plate n. cover; dish   Plata n. silver; money (slang)
     Police n. police force   Policía n. police, police officer
     Policy n. rule   Policía n. police, police officer
     Politic n. diplomatic   Político n. politician; Política n. politics
     Politics n. political affairs   Políticos n. politicians
     Pope n. Catholic priest   Papá n. dad
     Powder n. dust   Poder n. power
     Precious adj. valuable   Precioso adj. beautiful
     Preservative n. additive   Preservativo n. condom
     Presume v. to assume   Presumir v. to assume; to boast
     Pretend v. to imagine   Pretender v. to imagine; to try
     Prevent v. to stop, to avoid    Prevenir v. to warn; to foresee
     Privacy n. confidentiality   Privacidad n. confidentiality; intimacy
     Probe v. to search   Probé v. (I) tasted
     Professor n. lecturer   Profesor n. teacher
     Profound adj. figuratively deep   Profundo adj. deep; profound
     Propaganda n. half truths   Propaganda n. advertisement, advertising
     Proper adj. appropriate   Propio adj. own
     Prove v. to provide evidence    Probar v. to provide evidence; to try
     Punctual adj. on time   Puntual adj. on time; specific
     Point n. spot   Punto n. point, dot; period; spot
     Qualification n. skill   Calificación n. grade, ranking
     Question n. enquiry   Cuestión n. matter, issue
     Quiet adj. calm, peaceful; silent    Quieto adj. still; quiet
     Quit v. to give up   Quitar v. to remove, take away/off
     Range n. variety   Rango n. ranking
     Realize v. to understand, to notice   Realizar v. to carry out, to perform
     Recipe n. instructions   Recibe n. to receive
     Recipient n. receiver   Recipiente n. container
     Recollect v. to remember   Recolectar v. to collect again
     Recollection n. memory   Recolección n. a (public) collection
     Record n. v. to/a register   Recuerdo n. memory; Recordar v. to remember, to remind
     Red adj. a colour   Red adj. net
     Refrain v. to avoid   Refrán v. to idiom, proverb
     Refund n. repay    Refundir n. to mix again
     Registrar n. to record   Registrar v. to record; to search in detail (sb. or a place)
     Regular adj. usual, average    Regular adj. usual, average; acceptable; a bit mediocre
     Relation n. connection; family member   Relación n. connection
     Relative n. adj. family member; comparative   Relativo adj. connected to
     Relevant adj. pertinent   Relevante adj. pertinent; outstanding
     Relieve v. to alleviate   Relieve n. pattern
     Remain v. to stay   Remar v. to row (a boat)
     Remark v. to comment   Remarcar v. to mark again
     Remove v. to take away; to cause to leave   Remover v. to remove; to stir
     Rent n. v. to/a lease   Renta n. rent payment; income
     Reparation n. damages; compensation    Reparación n. mending
     Repent v. to regret   (De) Repente adv. suddenly
     Resort n. option, club   Resorte n. wire spring
     Rest n. remainder; v. to relax   Resto n. remainder Restar v. to subtract
     Resume v. to recommence   Resumen n. summary
     Retire v. to stop working   Retire v. leave, take off (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Retribution n. vengeance   Retribución n. compensation
     Revolver n. a small gun   Revolver v. to revolve; to stir; Revólver n. small gun
     Robe n. coat   Robe v. steal (imperative form, 2nd person sing)
     Rope n. cord, string   Ropa n. clothes
     Rude adj. impolite   Rudo adj. tough, rough
     Ruin n. wreckage; v. to wreck   Ruin adj. evil, mean; Ruina n. wreckage; Arruinar v. to wreck
     Salad n. vegetables mix   Salado/a n. salty
     Sale n. auction   Sale n. leave (imperative form, 2nd person sing.)
     Sane adj. rational   Sano adj. healthy
     Sanity n. good sense   Sanidad n. hygiene
     Sauce n. thick savoury liquid   Sauce n. willow
     Save v. to keep, to put aside   Sabe v. (he/she) knows
     Scenario n. situation, setting   Escenario n. stage
     Scientific adj. related to science    Científico n. scientist; adj. scientific
     Scholar n. researcher   Escolar n. related to school
     Senior adj. elder   Señor n. mister, sir; gentleman
     Sensible adj. rational   Sensible adj. sensitive
     Sensitive adj. susceptible   Sensitivo adj. sensible
     Sentence n. statement; verdict v. to condemn   Sentencia n. verdict; Sentenciar v. to condemn
     Serious adj. critical, important   Serio adj. critical, important; silent, reserved, trustworthy
     Severe adj. acute   Severo adj. rigid; serious
     Several adj. some   Severo adj. rigid
     Signature n. autograph   Asignatura n. school subject
     Similitude n. the fact of being similar to something or someone.   Similitud n. similarity
     Sin n. (religious) offence   Sin prep. without
     Sinister adj. threatening   Siniestro adj. threatening; n. catastrophe
     Soap n. lather   Sopa n. soup
     Sober adj. abstemious   Sobre adj. envelope Saber v. to know
     Sophisticated adj. stylish, complicated   Sofisticado adj. stylish; complicated; modern, advanced
     Soul n. spirit   Solo n. alone
     Spade n. shovel   Espada n. sword
     Spectacles n. eyeglasses    Espectáculos n. shows
     Stranger n. alien   Extranjero n. foreigner
     Subject n. topic, field of study; part of a sentence   Sujeto n. guy; part of a sentence
     Suburb n. outer neighbourhood   Suburbio n. slum
     Succeed v. to do well   Suceder v. to happen
     Success n. achievement   Suceso n. happening
     Sunrise n. dawn   Sonrisa n. smile
     Supply v. to provide; n. provisions   Suplir v. to substitute, to replace
     Support v. n. to/a hold up; back up   Soportar v. to hold up; stand sb or sth; Soporte n. column
     Sympathetic adj. understanding   Simpático adj. nice, pleasant
     Sympathise v. to understand   Simpatizar v. to be outgoing
     Sympathy n. understanding, compassion   Simpatía n. fondness, liveliness
     Table n. desk; chart   Tabla n. wooden plank
     Taller n. opposite of shorter   Taller n. workshop
     Tap n. valve   Tapa n. lid
     Target n. goal   Tarjeta n. card
     Tenant n. occupant   Teniente n. lieutenant
     Terrific adj. great   Terrible adj. terrible
     Tired adj. exhausted   Tirado v. thrown away, dropped
     Topic n. subject   Tópico n. cliché or trivial expression
     Traduce v. to criticize   Traduce v. to translate
     Trait n. feature   Trato n. deal, agreement
     Tramp n. vagabond   Trampa n. cheating, trick
     Transcend v. to excel   Trascender v. to excel; to be communicated
     Translate v. to interpret   Trasladar v. to move; to relocate
     Translation n. interpretation   Traslado n. movement, transfer
     Tree n. plant   Tres n. three
     Tremendous adj. great   Tremendo adj. large; terrible
     Tub n. container   Tubo n. tube
     Tuna n. fish type   Tuna n. music band, cactus, laziness
     Type n. kind v. to word-process   Tipo n. kina, type; guy; Tipear v. to word-process
     Ulterior adj. hidden   Ulterior adj. latter
     Ultimate adj. final; essential   Ultimo adj. last
     Ultimately adv. in the end   Últimamente adv. lately
     Vacuum n. void   Vacuna n. vaccination
     Vague adj. not expressed clearly   Vago adj. lazy; vague
     Vase n. pot   Vaso n. drinking glass
     Veranda n. porch   Baranda n. handrail
     Versus prep. against   Versos n. verses
     Vicious adj. cruel   Vicioso adj. addicted
     Villa n. cottage   Villa n. cottage; municipality
     Virtual adj. near, implicit   Virtual adj. near, implicit; potential, future
     Volubility n. fluency   Volubilidad n. instability
     Voluble adj. fluent, talkative   Voluble adj. changing
     Zealous adj. enthusiastic   Celoso adj. jealous


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